Plant Cells and Animal Cells
Animal cells are structurally on the same page because they are both Eukaryotic cells. The nucleus, mitochondria, endoplasmic reticulum, golgi apparatus, lysosomes, and peroxisomes are organelles common to both of them. An obvious difference is that animal cells are found in animals (consumers) whereas plant cells are found in plants (producers). Plant cells are larger in size with an average size of 10 to 100 micrometres whereas Animal cells are usually smaller with average sizes ranging from 10 to 30 micrometers. Beyond size, the main structural differences between plant and animal cells lie in a few additional structures found in plant cells. These structures include: chloroplasts, the cell wall, and vacuoles.
Animal cell only
Lysosomes: Lysosomes are membrane bound vesicles that are found only in animal cells. They contain uenzymes that breakdown of protiens and lipids. They responsible for cell digestion containing enzymes that breakdown food. they originate from the gogi appartus.
Centriole: Contains microtubles that are involved in creating the spindle fibres.
Plant cell only
Cell Wall: It is found outside the cell membrane. Main job of the cell wall is to provide rigidity, tensile strength, structural support, protection against infection.Helps diffuse gases in and out of the cell.
Chloroplast: This is the site of photosynthesis, which contains a green pigment called chlorophyll which absorbs sunlight to aid photosynthesis.
Now I will be explaining all the cell components both animal and plant cells have and their functions. A great way to understand cells is through cell parody songs so there is a link to a song which explains cells and their organelles on the left.
Plasma Membrane: The plasma membrane is a very thin flexible layer around the cell. This helps keep the contents of the cell together and controls what substances go in and out of the cell(semipermeable).
Cytoplasm: The cytoplasm is a jelly like substance containing water and mineral salt. This acts as a medium where biomedical reactions and most living processes occur within the cell. It also provides the organelles with substances obtained from external environment.
Nucleus: The nucleus is a spherical structure with a double membrane. The nucleus contains the nucleolus, chromosomes and the nuclear membrane. The nucleus controls cellular activities.
Ribosomes: Ribosomes are small particles cosisting of RNA. They are boundto the rough endoplasmic recticulumand are free in the cytoplasm. Their main job is to create protiens
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum: The function of therough er is to tranmsport protiens made by ribosomes to the golgi apparatus.
Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum: The smooth er is made up of tubyular cavities. It is smaller than the Rer. It is responsible for lipid synthesis, making steroids and chemically modifyingprotiensw within its lumen.
Golgi Apparatus: The golgi appartrusis avacuolar region surrounded by a complex network of vesicles budding off its end. It functions as a processing, packing and transport of carbohydrates,protiens and glycoprotiens. These materials will be membrane bound and secreted through vesicles. It consists of two components: the golgi vesicles and the cisternae.
Mitrochondria: Rod shaped organelle that has a smooth outershell while the inner membrane is folded into cisternae. Mitochondria is also known as the powerhouse of the cell because it is the site aerobic respiratuion. The energy it releases is in the form of ATP or adenosine triphosphate.